MERN Stack for Scalable Web Application

MERN Stack for Scalable Web Application

The user experience is crucial in today’s cutting-edge digital world. High performance is inevitable to deliver a seamless user experience. Certainly, a sluggish website or app can disappoint users and make them look for other competitors. Hence, it is significant to optimize the performance of your MERN stack application to ascertain that it can handle a huge volume of traffic. Moreover, they can handle voluminous traffic and big data without compromising on performance and speed.

Developers can employ best practices and various techniques to optimize the overall performance of the created MERN stack applications. The corresponding process entails various aspects ranging from code optimization to database tuning.

Understanding the MERN Stack:

The MERN stack refers to an acronym that signifies an assortment of JavaScript-centered technologies. These technologies are used to develop full-stack web apps.

The MERN stack is one of the variations of the MEAN stack (MongoDB Express Angular Node). In the MERN stack, the conventional Angular.js front-end framework is being substituted with React.js. Essentially, the MERN stack in full form is MongoDB Express React Node.

When you use this web development framework, you work in a React environment to implement the presentation layer. The Node and Express make up the middle layer i.e. application layer. MongoDB is used to develop the database layer.

Note that the MERN stack is not only a technology stack, but it’s also a strategic choice. It provides the necessary tools, scalability, and flexibility required for businesses willing to beat their competitors in this digital world.  Being equipped with the best tools, the MERN stack fulfills the organizations’ demand for complex applications.

It is a technology stack implemented with technologies like MongoDB, Express JS, React JS, and Node JS. It is used for building mobile & web apps. While working as a stack, it combines all the frameworks you require to develop an app from the backend and use the database at the front end.

Several other stacks are prevalent in the market. The famous ones are the MEAN stack, LAMP stack, and the serverless stack. When it comes to scalability, the MERN stack excels in all of them.

Developers prefer to use this stack since it chiefly works with JSON and JavaScript. It supports cloud-based databases to develop flexible apps. Furthermore, all the technologies in the MERN stack are open source. Hence, it is a perfect choice for developing apps at an affordable price.

This stack is implemented with some of the best frameworks. It lets you use the prominent features of each of the implemented technologies while developing a project.

Good read : MEAN Stack vs MERN Stack

Core technologies implemented in MERN Stack:

The MERN stack got its name by the implementation of four core technologies. Here’s the brief of these technologies.

MERN Stack technologies

  • MongoDB:

MongoDB is recognized as a NoSQL database capable to save data within a JSON-like format that is flexible. Considering its excellent scalability and convenience of use, it is a preferred option when it comes to developing web applications. Besides, it boasts adaptable, scalable, and effectual performance for different data storage scenarios.

  • Express.js:

This web application framework is flexible and involves minimal coding. It provides outstanding features for creation of mobile as well as web applications. Moreover, it is a lightweight server-side web application framework that streamlines API creation and server-side development.

  • React:

It is a JavaScript library used for creating user interfaces. The components in its architecture streamline the process of developing reusable and interactive react UI components. React.js is also prestigious as a client-side type JavaScript framework.

  • Node.js:

Recognized as a server-side type JavaScript runtime environment, you can use Node.js for creation of scalable and efficiently performing applications. It efficiently handles server-side logic in MERN applications. Moreover, it runs JavaScript code external to the browser.

With this overview, let’s get familiar with the benefits of the MERN stack.

Benefits of MERN Stack:

  • Efficient performance:

With the non-blocking, event-driven I/O model, Node.js offers efficient performance for server-side tasks.

  • Reusability:

The component-based architecture of React offers reusability. So, you can create complex UIs from easy-to-use, self-contained components.

  • Scalability:

MongoDB can handle huge amounts of data. Node.js’s scalability makes it an excellent choice for applications that are expected to grow with user demand.

Firstly, let’s understand the aspects that make an app scalable.

The implementation of appropriate web architecture with properly configured code makes an app scalable. The features must be implemented to balance the load and ascertain that the app doesn’t crash.

The backend can operate on multiple servers or be implemented with a system to decrease CPU power used. To make an app scalable, microservices are excellent choices since you can guarantee flawless communication among your servers.

The implemented frameworks and technologies are easily maintainable.

  • Huge community and ecosystem:

The MERN stack presents an active and huge community. It offers various open-source libraries, resources, and tools capable of saving effort and time.

Why are MERN stack apps scalable?

Scalability is a vital feature for all web apps. Those apps’ code is easier to maintain and such apps boast limited performance issues. Moreover, they present an improved user experience and can efficiently handle traffic surges.

MERN stack is composed of four technologies through which it can efficiently create extremely scalable apps. MERN stack apps are scalable since each of the implemented technologies is scalable and flexible. Due to this, the fame of scalable apps created for businesses and startups using the MERN stack are increasing. Consequently, the demand for MERN stack agencies and developers is increasing.

For example, let’s take the horizontal scaling ability of Mongo DB as an example. It can operate on multiple servers to accelerate the loading process via the Sharding feature. Henceforth, you obtain prompt scalability whenever you want it.

This horizontal scaling solves the single point of failure which formerly prevented apps from scaling. This implies that running your database on multiple servers will guarantee that your app still operates in case a server goes down.

React JS enhances the scalability of the MERN stack by using its reusable components functionality. It lets you make complicated interfaces by writing less code. So, it helps to easily maintain the app in the future and add features whenever needed.

Express JS excels at URL routing modules.  This technology establishes communication between the server-side and client-side; or the backend and the frontend. The communication established is fast and smooth. Moreover, it adopts the single-threaded procedure that simplifies the process of finding and fixing errors. Using Express JS to create the backend involves a smaller overhead cost.

Node JS also contributes to the scalability of the MERN stack. Its scalability relies on the way you create the back-end architecture. According to your project’s demands, a reliable development agency would add revisions to the layers, adopt cluster modules, make pub-sub patterns, add cache layers, and more.

Node JS comes with a non-blocking event loop system. Hence, it can process requests quicker than the majority of back-end frameworks prevalent today. This one and other reasons indicate the Node JS scalability. Hence, Node JS for backend is used by giants like Netflix and Walmart.

Note that although these technologies are high-performance, the scalable features need to be explicitly developed. If you aim to develop your app with an emphasis on scalability, you must hire developers who are expert to deal with your MERN stack project.

How does MERN Stack excel at scalability?

Let’s understand the reasons justifying the exceptional scalability of MERN stack.

How does MERN Stack excel at scalability

  • Ensures flexible and scalable development:

One of the prominent benefits of using the MERN stack is scalability. This potential makes it a decent option for web app development. The four technologies implemented in the MERN stack facilitate a flexible development environment.

The utilization of MongoDB in form of your database for any specific web app boasts the capability to manage a large capacity of data. Being a NoSQL database, it permits you to effortlessly save and retrieve large capacity data. Therefore, it is a perfect consideration for web apps primarily developed to manage huge capacity of transactions and lots of users.

Express.js is the back-end framework implemented in the MERN stack. It is also extremely scalable and flexible. It offers various tools and features making it easy to develop and install scalable web apps. The powerful routing capabilities allow developers to easily develop and handle the routes for their web apps.

React.js is also highly scalable. It offers an efficient and fast development environment. It uses a virtual DOM (Document Object Model) allowing it to proficiently update the user interface with fresh data. Furthermore, it facilitates responsive and fast user interactions.

The fourth technology i.e. Node.js is a back-end JavaScript runtime environment. It is competent enough to deal with large capacity of data and ascertains efficient performance. Besides, it uses a non-blocking type, event-based I/O model. So, it is perfect choice for apps as well as real-time web apps primarily created to deal with a huge capacity of concurrent connections.

From the above explanation, we can deduce that the MERN stack offers a flexible and scalable development environment capable of fulfilling your needs. This is applicable whether you are building a large-scale web app or a small startup.

  • Efficient and quick development process:

Another prominent benefit of using the MERN stack is it facilitates an efficient and quick development process. These abilities make it a suitable choice for cutting-edge web app development. Using various libraries and tools, and the potential of JavaScript allows MERN stack to streamline the development process. Also, they allow the creation of high-quality web apps efficiently and quickly.

Owing to support for a huge ecosystem of libraries and tools, JavaScript enables developers to conveniently and rapidly employ new features into their web apps.

You can make the most of the JavaScript’s prime benefit i.e. the capability to accelerate the development process. It is simple to learn & implement. Also, it offers plethora of functionalities and tools making it simple to create web apps.

React.js utilizes a virtual DOM that efficiently updates the user interface with fresh data. It offers responsive and fast user interactions. So, developers can easily build scalable web apps and ensure a satisfied user experience.

Node.js is also ideal for developing apps and real-time web apps capable of handling high traffic. It helps developers develop web apps capable of handling voluminous data and ensuring responsive user communications.

Database Optimization to boost scalability in MERN Stack:

In all MERN stack applications, there is a database that stores and manages the application’s data. With the increasing amount of data, the database’s performance can be a bottleneck. This impacts the application’s performance. Hence, database optimization ensures high scalability, availability, and performance. The following section discusses various techniques to optimize the database and boost scalability in the MERN stack.

  • Indexing:

This technique accelerates database queries. This is possible by making indexes on recurrently accessed columns. Essentially, an index works similarly to a table of contents you usually find in books. It allows the database to quickly find the needed data. Developers can make indexes on commonly accessed columns (for example foreign keys and primary keys). Subsequently, they can substantially enhance the query performance.

  • Caching:

This technique improves the overall performance of the recurrently accessed data. It does so by storing the data in memory. Developers can boost scalability in the MERN stack by caching recurrently accessed data. Consequently, they get rid of expensive database queries and can considerably boost the application’s performance. Note that caching needs meticulous management to ascertain that the cache data always stays updated.

  • Denormalization:

The denormalization technique enhances the database queries’ efficiency. It does so by duplicating data into multiple tables. The data duplication process protects developers from paying expensive joints that can degrade the query performance. Note that inappropriate use of denormalization can enhance data redundancy and make it difficult to manage data updates.

  • Partitioning:

The partitioning technique segments big tables into smaller parts that are more manageable. The process allows developers to boost the performance of the queries by decreasing the amount of data needed for scanning. Furthermore, portioning allows developers to store their data on various servers and thus enrich data availability.

  • Database Sharding:

Database sharding horizontally partitions huge databases over multiple servers. It divides the specific database into minor shards. Subsequently, the MERN stack developers can enhance query performance by decreasing the data volume to be scanned. This technique can also boost availability by permitting developers to store the data over multiple servers.

Code Optimization Techniques to handle high traffic:

Usually, MERN stack apps are developed using JavaScript which is an interpreted language that could be resource-intensive. When it comes to optimization of the performance of these apps, code optimization is a crucial approach.

The following section discusses some of the key techniques related to MERN stack development. Developers can apply these techniques to optimize the code of their apps when working on high-traffic use cases:

  • Lazy Loading:

Lazy loading is a technique that focuses on loading only the necessary code when it’s required instead of loading the whole code concurrently. Specifically, this technique is valuable for apps with huge codebases. The reason is it can prominently decrease their preliminary load time.

We can take an example to understand this. For instance, in a MERN stack app having multiple pages, the technique i.e. lazy loading could only load the necessary code for every page instead of simultaneously loading the whole code.

  • Minification and Compression:

The two aforementioned techniques can substantially decrease the overall dimension of the JavaScript code. They enhance the app’s load time.

Specifically, Minification involves discarding redundant characters such as comments and whitespace from the code. Compression focuses on decreasing the overall code size by substituting iterative expressions with smaller ones. The implementation of these techniques helps developers to cut back up to 70% of the code size of their JavaScript code. The reduced code will be able to ultimately handle high-traffic scenarios.

  • Code splitting:

The code-splitting technique involves dividing the app’s code into minor chunks. These chunks can be independently loaded. The aforementioned technique can help to decrease the preliminary load time of the app being considered. Ultimately, it enhances the app’s performance.

The division of the large code into smaller parts suggests that the client’s browser could only load the necessary code for the existing page. The client’s browser need not load the whole code at once. This eventually leads to enhanced performance of the application, seamlessly handles high traffic, and also enriches user experience.

  • Server-side rendering:

The aforementioned techniques focus on rendering the preliminary HTML content over the server instead of depending on client-side type JavaScript to provide the content. With this technique, there will be an improvement in the application’s initial load time. Also, it can decrease the workload imposed on the browser of the client. These factors ultimately help the MERN stack apps to handle high traffic.

  • Load balancing:     

The load balancing technique helps to disseminate workload over multiple servers. It allows the servers to more efficiently manage high traffic. When it comes to MERN stack applications, this technique is crucial for dealing with huge amounts of traffic. Also, it guarantees high performance and availability.

By splitting the ongoing traffic over multiple servers, it is ensured that no server gets overloaded with the requests. The same is attainable by utilizing a load balancer. It is a hardware/software device that exists between the servers and the client. To distribute traffic over multiple servers, you can use one of the various load-balancing techniques.

Using MERN Stack to handle high traffic and big data:

Handling high-traffic scenarios and big data is frequently found when using the MERN stack. It is important to know how to effectively use the MERN stack to handle these aspects. Let’s get into the details of the following section which illustrates ways to effectively use MERN stack to handle big data and high traffic.

  • Maintaining code as readable and modular:

While building an app using the MERN stack, you must keep the code modular and organized. It involves splitting the code into tiny modules or functions that accomplish intended tasks. If you write modular code, it streamlines tasks like refactoring, debugging, and maintenance.

It is also vital to write readable code, apply correct naming, and use indentation techniques. Once the process of reviewing any written code completes, it proves to be easy to assure that the code becomes easily understandable, systematized, and maintainable.

To ensure flawless operation, documenting your code is a good idea. It helps other developers willing to work with particular code in the future. The corresponding process can involve adding comments to illustrate difficult parts of code or offering a distinct document defining the functionality and purpose of every module. This approach is helpful when you are unavailable and somebody else has to work on that code.

The code written must not only be functional but should also be easily understandable by other developers. Hence, modular and readable code allows your MERN stack app to handle high traffic and big data.

  • Code optimization:

It is vital to optimize your code to ensure performance if you are developing full-stack web apps using the MERN stack. An app that takes a long time to load or frequently crashes is useless. You can use tools to evaluate your app’s performance and recognize the areas that demand improvement.

For example, you can use the React Profiler tool to determine performance bottlenecks existing in the corresponding React components. You can also use the Chrome DevTools to understand your app’s scripting and rendering performance.

If you want to optimize your created code further, you can avoid unnecessarily re-rendering components. This is possible by using React.memo or shouldComponentUpdate. Such tools can help you decrease the number of times those components are rendered. Ultimately, you can improve the app’s performance.

Another technique recommended is lazy loading. It improves page load speed and lets you load only the required components on a specific page. This technique can considerably boost your app’s speed and performance. Specifically, this technique is useful for websites dealing with huge amounts of content (like pages with lots of videos or images).

Loading only the required components reduces the amount of data to be transferred and hence enhances the overall experience. Hence, code optimization can allow the MERN stack app to handle high-traffic scenarios and big data.

  • Responsiveness and high performance:

The MERN stack’s cost-effectiveness is another prominent benefit and a key reason why it is a decent alternative for web app development. Open-source technologies namely MongoDB, Express, React, and Node.js are implemented in the MERN stack. These technologies are freely available; they can be used without royalty payments or licensing fees.

The use of open-source technologies offers various benefits for companies. These benefits include reduced costs for software development, utilization, and maintenance. The organizations don’t have to pay licensing fees while utilizing the MERN stack. This can considerably decrease the expense of creating and installing web apps.

The supportive and huge community of users and developers offers cost-saving advantages. This community offers enough resources and knowledge including forums, tutorials, and documentation. These resources are useful to learn and create web apps using the MERN stack. Hence, organizations can easily get started using the MERN stack and stay away from investing in costly training and support.

The MERN stack’s cost-effectiveness is due to its ability to scale and manage high traffic. It uses Node.js which offers high stability and performance. Hence, the use of Node.js makes the MERN stack ideal for web apps that need to manage big data and high traffic. Using the MERN stack allows organizations to create and deploy web apps competent to handle huge volumes of traffic and data without investing in costly infrastructure and hardware.

How MERN stack prove to be versatile to handle high traffic?

MERN stack’s versatility is another prominent advantage and a reason behind its usefulness for web app development. It offers a full-stack development platform that is useful whether you build a web app for a startup or a huge organization. This platform helps develop various web apps that benefit organizations with a versatile and flexible web app development solution. Hence, its versatility makes it competent to handle voluminous traffic.

By using MongoDB in the MERN stack, your web app can handle various data types and structures. It implements a flexible structure for easy storage and retrieval of data belonging to varied types and structures. Hence, due to MongoDB, the MERN stack proves to be perfect for web apps that have to handle a broad range of data –ranging from semi-structured data (like images and videos) to structured data (like numbers and text).

Express.js is one of the four technologies implemented in the MERN stack. It makes the MERN stack versatile because it is a flexible and lightweight framework useful for building various types of web apps. For instance, it aids develop single-page apps & multi-page apps. Also, Express.js supports diverse tools and functionalities capable to simplify the overall development and utilization of web apps.


The optimization of MERN stack performance is inevitable for developing high-traffic apps capable of handling several concurrent users. Such apps deliver a responsive user experience. Due to the wide scope and high scalability of this technology stack and the increasing dependence of customers on online businesses, it is expected to witness more apps developed using the MERN stack in the future. You can hire a MERN stack development company if you want to develop your app from scratch and benefit from the scalable features from the start.


  • Q1. Can the MERN stack efficiently handle big data? If yes, how?

A1. Yes, the MERN stack can efficiently handle big data because one of the four core technologies it comes with is Node.js. it is the back-end JavaScript runtime environment that offers scalability and high performance. It puts into effect a non-blocking type, event-focused I/O model. Due to this model, it works perfectly for apps as well as r real-time web apps dedicated to deal with big data. Consequently, this scenario allows developers to conveniently develop such web apps capable to deal with the capacity of data and also enable prompt user interactions.

  • Q2. How MERN stack save time while handling high traffic?

A2. Using the MERN stack, developers only need to write code once and then they can reuse it over the whole web app. This approach decreases the development time and also maintains a reliable codebase. The developers can therefore comprehend and make modifications to code, boosting the development process efficiency.

MERN stack’s modular architecture also benefits in regards to customization. It utilizes a microservice architecture that allows various components to be developed, installed and maintained self-reliantly. Hence, organizations can quickly select the components that best suit their needs. Ultimately this lets MERN stack save their time when they handle high traffic scenarios.

  • Q3. How does the MERN stack prove to be useful to startups and small businesses?

A3. A part of the working of the MERN stack is based on the full-stack JavaScript ecosystem. It lets developers easily find and recruit skilled developers having the required skills. JavaScript is an extensively used programming language, so organizations can easily find developers with the necessary talent and experience to deal with their web apps. Chiefly, this is significant for small businesses and startups that have limited resources to hire and train developers in various programming languages.

  • Q4. What makes the MERN stack a preferred choice for scaling web app development?

A4. Two of the prime advantages of using the MERN stack for web app development are customization and flexibility. Its work is based on various flexible and modular technologies. These technologies are MongoDB, Express, React, and Node.js. They can be conveniently customized to fulfill the specific requirements of various organizations.

Another major advantage of using the MERN stack for scaling web app development is its components’ flexibility. For instance, React presents a modular and flexible front-end framework that you can easily adapt as per the project’s requirements. Hence, organizations can develop and set up their web apps exactly as per their goals.

  • Q5. What aspects of the MERN stack help developers create scalable web applications?

A5. The process of MERN stack development offers an all-inclusive toolkit that perfectly follows contemporary web development practices. Several aspects of this technology help developers to develop efficient, advanced, and scalable web applications. These aspects are scalability, a single language prototype, component-based architecture, RESTful API development competencies, and a rich ecosystem. By using the capabilities of each component, the MERN stack facilitates the development of high-performing, modern web applications in this competitive digital world.

  • Q6. What techniques are used to optimize a MERN stack application’s performance?

A6. Techniques used to optimize a MERN stack application’s performance are load balancing, database optimization, and code development. The implementation of these techniques helps MERN stack developers boost their application’s overall performance and offers an enriched user experience to their customers.

Looking for highly scalable application? Connect with our full stack development company : Aalpha information systems.


Written by:

Stuti Dhruv

Stuti Dhruv is a Senior Consultant at Aalpha Information Systems, specializing in pre-sales and advising clients on the latest technology trends. With years of experience in the IT industry, she helps businesses harness the power of technology for growth and success.

Stuti Dhruv is a Senior Consultant at Aalpha Information Systems, specializing in pre-sales and advising clients on the latest technology trends. With years of experience in the IT industry, she helps businesses harness the power of technology for growth and success.