Top Deep Learning Frameworks

9 Top Deep Learning Frameworks

Machine learning is a crucial technical area that has grown tremendously over the past 10 years. For instance, the worldwide machine learning market, which was estimated at $15.44 billion in 2021, is projected to rise at a CAGR of 38.8% from $21.17 billion to $209.91 billion by 2029 as a result of the rising use of technological innovations. Even as the machine learning field grows extensively, it is essential to understand that subfields under it, including deep learning, are also at the helm of every innovative and technical company.

Deep learning is a subfield under the extensive field of machine learning and brings greater efficiency and accuracy in handling comprehensive data sets. While feeding extensive data sets into systems, deep learning can help match the cognitive human brain powers by learning from the given data sets.

Deep learning has now grown into an extensive field with new features under implementation. For this reason, data scientists focus on building and extending the area by developing advanced frameworks serving as an interface for building deep learning models. With deep learning, there’s less need for diving into the intricacies of underlying machine learning and deep learning algorithms. Therefore, the best operation underlying them is that the complexities are all handled through the deep learning frameworks. With an excellent understanding of the need for deep learning, it is essential to note the increasing usage and adoption of deep learning frameworks. Let’s explore the wide range of frameworks available to support deep understanding:

Top Deep Learning Frameworks 2023

  • PyTorch

Facebook is the sole organization responsible for Pytorch – a great deep-learning framework. Its primary goal is to speed up the entire process from research prototype to production implementation. It is built on the Torch library, with a C++ front end and a Python interface. Such is an intriguing technical approach. The torch-distributed backend encourages scaling decentralized instruction and performance improvements in research and production, while the front end acts as the fundamental building block for the design of models. You may use this as one of the most remarkable deep-learning frameworks. You may use standard debuggers like PyCharm with PyTorch. It works with a continuously updated graph, so you may alter the model’s architecture as needed throughout learning.

  • Sonnet

DeepMind created Sonnet, a high-level toolkit for creating complex neural network topologies in TensorFlow. The model’s principles revolve around TensorFlow’s foundations. With Sonnet, you may construct and build the fundamental elements of Python that match the various components of a neural network. The TensorFlow computation network is then separately coupled to these items. Creating high-level architectures is more accessible by building Python objects and connecting them to a graph. It provides a straightforward yet effective programming paradigm.

  • TensorFlow


Thanks to Google’s open-source projects, TensorFlow is among the most renowned frameworks. It is one of the top tools and frameworks among deep learning experts. It is a JavaScript-based framework boasting many tools and other resources. Such resources facilitate proper deployment as well as training in deep learning models.

TensorFlow is a core tool that will help you train, create and deploy models in production environments. It is also an essential tool for deploying models on embedded and mobile devices. TensorFlow works perfectly with Python in building deep learning frameworks, even though other associated programming languages, such as JavaScript, Julia, and Go, serve the same purpose. It is powerful enough to deploy and run models in running powerful computing clusters.

Additionally, the framework is powerful enough to run models on available mobile platforms. However, TensorFlow requires that developers focus on in-depth coding, which operates through static computation graphs. Data integration functions and the inclusion of images are among the roles performed by the framework.

  • Chainer

On top of the NumPy and CuPy libraries, Chainer is a Python-based open-source deep learning framework. Its launch came with the define-by-run methodology as the first Deep Learning framework. The fixed links between the network’s mathematical processes must first be defined in this method. The fundamental training calculation is then carried out. Chainer has excellent flexibility and intuitiveness.

  • Open Neural Network Exchange(ONNX)

Microsoft and Facebook came up with the ONNX deep learning project. This open project supports creating and disseminating deep learning and machine learning models. It also defines built-in operators, standard data types, and an extendable computation graph model. By allowing you to train models in one framework and then move them to another for inference, ONNX simplifies transferring them between various AI working methods. Accessing hardware improvements is made simpler by ONNX. Onnx-compatible runtimes and libraries are available for maximizing performance on different hardware platforms. Without worrying about the effects of downstream inference, users may create projects using their favorite framework and inference engine.

  • Swift for TensorFlow

The strength of TensorFlow and the Swift programming language are combined in Swift for TensorFlow. Swift for TensorFlow integrates all the most recent findings in machine learning, differentiable programming, compilers, systems architecture, and much more because it was created exclusively for machine learning. Swift for TensorFlow provides first-rate auto-functionality for differentiable programming. Therefore, you can quickly create any function’s derivatives or custom data structures differently. It comes with a comprehensive toolchain to aid in increasing users’ productivity.

  • Keras


Keras is a handy tool that may be used with PlaidML and TensorFlow. The key differentiator of Keras is its quickness, with built-in parallelism backing, allowing it to analyze vast amounts of data while speeding up model training. It is simple to use and extendable due to its Python code support. It is also crucial to understand that low-level computing is not Keras’ strong point, even though it works excellently for high-level calculations. Keras has limits when it comes to prototyping. In Keras, single-line functions must suffice to construct substantial DL models. This makes Keras considerably less customizable.

  • MXNet

Deep neural network deployment and training are the critical focus of MXNet. As a result of its tremendous scalability, the framework encourages quick model training. It also supports several programming languages, like C++, Python, Perl, and Wolfram, and boasts a flexible architecture. MXNet has excellent adaptability and scales to several GPUs or different computers. Modern deep learning models like extended short-term memory networks and convolutional neural networks are supported by this lightweight, versatile, and scalable architecture.

  • Gluon

An open-source deep learning interface, Gluon, enables programmers to create machine learning models rapidly. With the support for utilizing various pre-built and optimized neural network components, the framework provides a simple and concise API for developing machine learning models. Users may define neural networks using short, clear, accessible code. It includes plug-and-play building components for neural networks, such as initializers and preconfigured layers. The elements assist in removing many of the intricate processes that lie elsewhere.


As highlighted initially, deep learning is one of the growing fields in machine learning. With an understanding of all the frameworks related to deep learning, it is essential to focus on each, primarily when focusing on those that provide specific resources for specific projects. Additionally, you may utilize the frameworks to help you make a well-informed choice on the most suitable framework that matches your project and isn’t a deep learning framework for the usage or deployment you need.

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